Wiki-Grammar of Lidepla (fb2)

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Gramatika pa inglish

GRAMATIKA

Doiche

Inglish

Espaniol

Esperanto

Franse

Italiano

Ruski


Contents [hide]

1 The alphabet and pronounciation

1.1 Vowels

1.2 Consonants

1.3 Word stress

2 Simple sentence

3 Compound Sentence

4 Word

4.1 1. Noun

4.1.1 2. Pronouns that function like nouns

4.2 3. Adjective

4.2.1 3.3. Pronouns that function as adjectives

4.3 4. Adverb

4.3.1 4.2. Demonstrative

4.3.2 4.3. Compound

4.3.3 4.4. Other

4.4 5. Verb

4.4.1 6. Special verbs

5 Compound words

6 Interchange of one part of speech for another

7 Particles and affixes that don't change the class of word

7.1 1. Common

7.2 2. Noun

7.3 3. Adjective

7.4 4. Verb

8 Prepositions

8.1 2. Simple prepositions

8.2 3. Prepositions of correlations

8.3 4. Prepositions of situation

8.4 5. Prepositions of movement

8.5 6. Prepositions of time

8.6 7. Prepositions of number

8.7 8. Preposition of general meaning: pa

9 Conjunctions

9.1 1.1. simple:

9.2 1.2. doubled:

9.3 1.3. phrasal:

10 Numerals

10.1 1.1. basic numerals

10.2 Deriven worda

10.3 1.6. Pronouns

10.4 2. Date

11 Exclamations

11.1 1. Greetings

11.2 2. Politeness words

11.3 3. Interjections

The alphabet and pronounciation

At present the Latin script is most widespread, so it was chosen to be the official Lidepla script. The alphabet of Lidepla contains 25 letters ("q" isn't used, "c" occurs only in "ch"):

A B Ch D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Y Z

a b ch d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v w x y z

a be che de e ef ge ha i ja ka el em en o pe er es te u ve wa iks ye ze


Vowels

Basic vowels: a, o, u, i, e

Vowels in Lidepla, unlike English ones, are regular and never change pronunciation. The situation is the same as in languages like Italian and Spanish.

Some examples of one syllable words with the basic vowels (in italics there is a close (in pronunciation) English word; also the meaning of the Lidepla words is given):

ba (bar) – (an imperative particle)

do (door) – (the preposition introducing a characteristic feature)

ku (coo(l)) – (a question particle)

li (lea(d)) – they

me (me(n)) – I, me

Also the letter "y" is used. It sounds generally the same as "i", but is never stressed. One can say that it corresponds to the English "y". For example: ya (yah) – yes, yo (yore) – already, yu (you) – you, ye (yeah) – there is, lyu (lew) – leave, may (my) – my, ley (lay) – their


Consonants

b, d, g: bu (boo) – not, de (dea(f)) – of, ga (gar) – completely

p, t, k (with aspiration): pan (pun) – bread, tak (tuck) – so

z ([dz]): zun ([dzun]) – occupy oneself

j, ch: jan (jun(to)) – to know, chay (chi(ld)) – tea

w / v, f: fa (far) – (to grow/get), wo (wore) – where

s (as in English, it may be voiced between vowels), sh: se (se(t)) – this (noun), shu (shoe) – shoe

h: hu (who) – who

m, n, r, l: man (mun) – man, la (lar) – (used not to repeat a noun), ruf (roof) – roof

The letter "x" sounds as a combination "gs" (before a consonant my be pronounced as simple "s"; like the English “x”, may be voiced between vowels, as in “exam”): ex (ex) – ex

The combination ng is pronounced as the English ng: bruing (brewing) – brewing

Word stress

The general rule is as follows: the vowel before the last consonant or "y" is stressed.

Thus, if the word ends in a consonant, the last syllable is stressed: kalAm – pencil, sabAh – morning

If the word ends in a vowel, the syllable before the last one is stressed: mAta – mother, kitAba – book, famIlia – family

The "y" itself is never stressed, it can affect the stress position though: dEy – day, ruchEy – brook

If there are 2 vowels in the syllable, one should remember that "u" and "i" in combinations (au, eu, ai, ei, oi) are not stressed, and "o" is not stressed in "ao": dao – way, auto – car, euro – euro, fail – file, meil – mail, asteroida – asteroid


There are some exceptions though, as Lidepla tries to keep the pronunciation close to widespread patterns. You don't need to memorize the rule, just read the examples attentively. (In this grammar you will meet a reminder if the stress is irregular.)

Thus, there are 4 endings that are never stressed:

-um (fOrum – forum, vAkum – vacuum, sIrkum – around)

-us (vIrus – virus, tOnus – tonus, sIrkus – circus)

-er (sUper – super, kompyUter – computer)

-en (exAmen – exam, Iven – even)

Endings -ik- and -ul- in simple (not compound) nouns and adjectives are not stressed: gramAtika – grammar, pUblika – audience, Afrika – Africa, polItike – politic, lOgike – logic, stImula – stimulus, fAbula – fairy-tale, fOrmula – formule

-im in "mInim" (the least), "mInimum", "mAximum" is not stressed.

In some special cases the non-standard stress is indicated by doubled vowel: adyoo – bye, namastee – hello, how do you do


Compound words retain the stress of the components.

The stress doesn't change when using the following:

- the plural form of nouns (+ (e)s): kitAba / kitAbas – book / books, man / mAnes – man / men

- adverbs formed from adjectives: jamIle / jamIlem – beautiful / beautifully

- nouns formed from verbs: lOpi / lOping – run / running


Simple sentence

1. Word order in a clause: subject – predicate – object (usually)

- Me (I) lubi (to love) yu (you). – I love you.

To mark the change of the word order special particles are used:

a) da (before the subject)

b) den (before the object):

- Lubi (to love) da me (I). – I love.

- Den yu (you) me (I) lubi (to love). – I love you. It's you whom I love.


2. Word order in a phrase: adjective is before a noun (usually).

- Es (is/are) may (my) syao (little) son (son). – That's my little son.

To emphasize the adjective, it can be placed after the noun.

- Me (I) pri (to like) elay (her) gran (big) okos (eyes) blu (blue). – I like her big blue eyes.


3. Predicative adjectives and nominals

- May (my) mata (mother) es (is) talimer (teacher). – My mother is a teacher.

- May (my) sista (sister) yao (to want) bikam (to become) leker (doctor). – My sister wants to become a doctor.

- Sey (this) gela (girl) es (is) muy (very) jamile (beautiful). – This girl is very beautiful.

- Es (is) jamile (beautiful) hir (here). – It's beautiful here.


4. Impersonal sentence (without the subject)

- Pluvi (to rain) gro (much). – It rains / is raining much.

- Treba (it's necessary) shwo (to talk). – It's necessary to talk.

- Es (is) garme (hot). – It's hot.


5. Negation: negation particle bu is placed before the verb group.

- Lu (he) bu (not) somni (to sleep). – He doesn't sleep / isn't sleeping.

- Me (I) bu (not) wud (would) yao (to want) resti (to remain) dar (there). – I won't stay there.

If there is at least one negative word in the phrase, the whole phrase gets a negative meaning. If there are several of them, that only emphasizes the negative meaning.

- Lu (he) bu (not) samaji (to understand) nixa (nothing), neva (never)! – He doesn't understand anything, ever!


6. General question: the particle ob (is placed before the phrase):

- Ob yu (you) lubi (to love) me (I)? – Do you love me?

Possible answers: ya (yes), non (no), doh

a) Ob yu lubi me? – Ya, me lubi. Non, me bu lubi. – Do you love me? – Yes, I do. No, I don't.

b) Ob yu bu lubi me? – Ya / non, me bu lubi. Doh, me lubi. – Don't you love me? – No, I don't. Yes, I do.


Other ways to make a general question:

a) "bu ver?" (is placed after a phrase, with a comma):

- Es (is) hao (good) meteo (weather), bu (not) ver (really)? – The weather is good, isn't it?

Possible answers: ver (yes, it's true), bu es ver (no, it isn't true).

b) Repeating of the verb with "bu" particle:

- Yu lai-bu-lai? – Are you coming (or not)?


7. Special question

In a special question the question word is put in the beginning of the phrase, the word order doesn't change. The inversion can occur only in the phrase with the verb "bi / es/ bin": Wo (where) es (is) may (my) kalam (pencil)? – Where is my pencil?

hu – who: Hu (who) somni (to sleep)? – Who sleeps?

kwo – what: Kwo (what) yu (you) vidi (to see)? – What do you see?

kwel – what sort of, which: Kwel (what) flor (flower) yu (you) pri (to like)? – What flower do you like?

komo – how: Komo (how) yu (you) zwo (to make) se (this)? – How do you make this / have you made this?

way – why: Way (why) yu (you) bu (not) somni (to sleep)? – Why don't you sleep?

wen – when: Wen (when) yu (you) lai (to come)? – When are you coming?

wo – where: Wo (where) es (is) may (my) docha (daughter)? – Where is my daughter?

a wo – where, to what direction: A wo (where) yu (you) yao (to want) go (to go)? – Where do you want to go?

fon wo – where from: Fon wo (where from) yu (you) lai (to come)? – Where do you come from?

kwanto – how many, how much: Kwanto (how many) bonbon (sweets) yu (you) he ("past tense") chi (to eat)? – How many sweets have you eaten?


8. Emphasizing of the whole phrase meaning: ya (before or after the predicate)

- Me (I) ya lubi (to love) yu (you)! – I love you indeed!

- Es (is) ya hao (good) dey (day)! – What a good day!


9. Emphasizing of a single word: hi (in assertion), ku (in a question)

- Me (I) hi bu (not) yao (to want) somni (to sleep). – Personally I don't want to sleep.

- Yu (you) ku bu (not) yao (to want) somni (to sleep)? – Is it you who doesn't want to sleep?

Compound Sentence

1. The sentence topic: one can specialize the topic of the sentence at the beginning.

- Sey (this) aksham (evening), ob ("if") yu (you) ve ("will") go (to go) a ("to") koylok (somewhere)? – Are you going somewhere tonight?

2. Simple sentences may be combined into complex ones by conjunctions or combination "preposition + ke":

- Me (I) pri (to like) gani (to sing) e (and) yu (you) pri (to like) rasmi (to draw). – I like to sing and you like to draw.

- Me (I) wud ("would") yao (to want) lekti (to read) bat (but) kitaba (book) yok (there is no). – I would like to read but there is no book.

- Me (I) promeni (to go walking) obwol (although) pluvi (to rain). – I'm walking although it's raining.

- Me (I) mog (can) go (go) adar (there), bat (but) sol (only) kun (with) ke ("that") yu (you) go (to go) toshi (too). – I can go there, but only if you also go.


3. One simple sentence may be a constituent of another sentence. It may take place of:

3.1. the object

a) with the conjunction ke:

- Me (I) vidi (to see) ke ("that") ela (she) rasmi (to draw). – I can see that she is drawing.

b) with preposition + the particle ke:

- Me (I) shwo (talk) om (about) ke ("that") yu (you) bu (not) gun (to work). – I talk about the fact that you don't work.

c) with the particle ob:

- Me (I) bu (not) jan (to know) ob ("if") ta (he / she) es (is) in (in) dom (house). – I don't know if he / she is at home.

d) with a question word:

- Me (I) jan (to know) kwo (what) yu (you) yao (to want). – I know what you want.

e) After perception verbs (vidi (to see), kan (to look), audi (to hear), slu (to listen) etc.) there are can be "noun + participle" combination:

- Me (I) vidi (to see) ela (her) rasmi-she (drawing). – I see her draw.


3.2. attribute

a) If the attribute phrase is before the noun, use ti .. na to mark it:

- { Ti yu (you) vidi (to see) na boy (boy) } janmog (can) gani (to sing) hao (well). – The boy that you see can sing well.

b) If the attribute phrase is after the noun, it is introduced by the particle ke:

- { Boy (boy) ke ("that") yu (you) vidi (to see) } janmog (to know how) gani (to sing) gro-hao (greatly). – The boy that you see can sing beautifully.

- { To (that) ke ("that") yu (you) shwo (to say) } es (is) hao (good). – The thing that you are talking about is good.

c) The attribute phrase may have the same subject as the main phrase. In this case the pronoun kel (..na) is used:

- Me (I) vidi (to see) boy (boy) { kel janmog (to know how) gani (to sing) gro-hao (greatly)}. – I see the boy who can sing beautifully.

- Boy (boy) kel janmog (to know how) gani (to sing) gro-hao (greatly) na es (is / are) hir (here). - The boy who can sing beatifully is here.


3.3. predicative:

a) with the particle ke:

- May (my) opina (opinion) es (is) { ke ("that") yu (you) es (is / are) verem (truly) jamile (beautiful) }. – My opinion is that you are really beautiful.

Word

1. Noun

Examples: jen (human), arda (earth), flor (flower), animal (animal).

1.1 Number

a) The basic form of a noun doesn't convey the number:

- jena human / many humans

- un (one) jena human

- dwa (two) jentwo humans

- mucho (many) jenmany humans

- jeneshumans


b) plural form (the stressed vowel doesn't change):

if the word ends with a vowel: + s: un kitaba (a book) – kitabas, un tabla (a table) – tablas

if the word ends with a consnant: + es: un flor (a flower) – flores, un animal (an animal) – animales


1.2. Case:

a) There are no special case forms.

b) The change of the word order is indicated by the particle den:

- Den sey (this) flor (flower) me (I) pri (to like). – I like this flower.

- den dom (house) sobre (above) – above the house

c) Nominative marker is da (used only when necessary):

- Mata (mother) samaji (to understand) me (I) sam (same) hao (good, well) kom (as) da yu (you). – Mother understands me as well as you do.

- Mata (mother) samaji (to understand) me (I) sam (same) hao (good, well) kom (as) den yu (you). – Mother understands me as well as you.


1.3. Gender:

a) Nouns don't belong to any gender: amigafriend (male or female)

b) One can specify the sex of a human by:

particles man- and gin-

- leker (doctor) – man-leker (male-doctor) – gin-leker (female doctor)

- kota (cat) – man-kota (male-cat) – gin-kota (female-cat)

changing "a" with -o and -ina:

- amiga (friend) – amigo (male friend) – amigina (female friend)

c) Some nouns imply the sex of the human:

- man (man) – gina (woman)

- boy (boy) – gela (girl)

- patra (father) – mata (mother)

- son (son) – docha (daughter)

- opa (grandfather) – oma (grandmother)

- brata (brother) – sista (sister)

- onkla (uncle) – tia (aunt)


1.4. Apposition may be marked with to (from "to es" – that is):

- Me (I) to kitabnik (book lover) lekti (to read) mucho (much). – I, being a book lover, read a lot.

- Molya (wife) gro-lubi (to adore) suy (her) mursha (husband) to soldata (soldier). – The wife adores her husband who is a soldier.


1.5. There is no article (numeral "un" (one) and demonstrative pronouns like "sey" (this) are used instead, when necessary).


2. Pronouns that function like nouns

2.1. Personal:

a) me (I), nu (we), yu (you), ta (he / she), li (they)

- Nu (we) vidi (to see) li (they). – We see them.

- Me (I) dumi (to think) om (about) yu (you). – I'm thinking about you.

b) lu (he), ela (she), it (it), yu oli (you all), oni (one), ambi (both)

- Oni (one) shwo (to say) ke ("that")... – One says that...

- Es (is) kitaba (book). Me (I) pren (to take) it (it). – This is a book. I take it.

- Me (I) hev (to have) dwa (two) kota (cat). Ambi (both) es (is / are) swate (black). – I have two cats. They both are black.


2.2. Reflexive: swa (oneself), mutu (one another)

- Me (I) woshi (to wash) swa (oneself). – I wash myself.

- Ela (she) lubi (to love) swa (oneself). – She loves herself.

- Nu (we) lubi (to love) mutu (one another). – We love one another.


2.3. Compound:

a) koywan (somebody), koysa (something)

b) eniwan (anybody), enisa (anything)

c) kadawan (everybody), oli (all, everybody), olo (all, everything)

d) nulwan (nobody), nixa (nothing)


2.4. Demonstrative: se (this), to (that)

- Se (this) es (is) auto (car), to (that) es (is) avion (airplane). – This is a car, that is an airplane.


2.5. Relative:

a) ke ("that" – object)

- Es (is) kitaba (book) ke ("that") yu (you) he ("past tense") lekti (to read). – This is the book that you have read.

b) kel ("who / which" – subject, or with a preposition)

- Es (is) boy (boy) kel (who) janmog (to know how) gani (to sing) muy (very) hao (good, well). – This is the boy who can sing very well.

2.6. sama (the same thing)

- Hao (good) Nove (new) Yar (year)! – Sama (the same thing) a yu (to you)! – Happy New Year! – The same (thing) to you!


3. Adjective

Examples: hao (good), jamile (beautiful), blu (blue).

3.1. Comparison:

a) pyu... kem (more... than), meno... kem (less... than)

- May (my) syao (little) kamila (camomille) es (is / are) pyu (more) jamile (beautiful) kem (than) yur (your) gran (big) rosa (rose). – My little camomille is more beautiful than your rose..

b) sam .. kom (as... as),

c) zuy (the most), minim (the least)

- Luy (his) auto (car) es (is) zuy (the most) kway (fast). – His car is the fastest.

d) kem... tem (the... the...)

- kem pyu (more) kway (fast), tem pyu (more) hao (good, well) – the faster, the better


3.2. Intensification:

a) muy (very)

- Ela (she) es (is / are) muy (very) jamile (beautiful). – She is very beautiful.

b) tro (too)

- Sey (this) panta (trousers) es (is / are) tro (too) gran (big). – These trousers are too big.

c) idyen (a little)

- Yur (your) klaida (clothes) es (is / are) idyen (a little) mokre (wet). – Your clothes are a little wet.

d) basta (enough)

- Sey (this) dom (house) es (is / are) basta (enough) gran (big). – This house is big enough.

e) ga (completely)

- Kinda (child) es (is / are) ga (completely) gande (dirty). – The child is completely dirty.

f) aika (quite)

- Sey (this) dom (house) es (is / are) aika gran (big). - This house is quite big.


3.3. Pronouns that function as adjectives

a) posessive: may (my), nuy (our), yur (your), suy (his / her), luy (his), elay (her), ley (their)

- Wo (where) es (is) yur (your) mata (mother)? – Where is your mother?

b) swa-ney (own)

- Me (I) pren (to take) swa-ney (own) bao (bag), bu (not) yur (your) shapa (hat). – I take my own bag, (and) not your hat.

c) demonstrative: sey (this), toy (that), tal (such)

- Sey (this) dom (house) es (is) gao (tall). – This house is tall.

- Me (I) bu (not) pri (to like) tal (such) joka (joke). – I don't like such jokes.

d) specifying: koy (some), eni (any), kada (every, each), otre (other), same (same), nul (no), ol (all, whole)

- Kada (every) gina (woman) pri (to like) chokolat (chocolate). – Every woman likes chocolate.

- Nul (no) kota (cat) pri (to like) chi (to eat) legum (vegetable). – No cat likes to eat vegetables.

4. Adverb

Examples: hao (well), klarem (clearly).

4.1. Comparison: look comparison for adjectives


4.2. Demonstrative

a) of manner: tak (so)

- Me (I) bu (not) pri (to like) wen (when) yu (you) shwo (to say) tak (so). – I don't like when you talk so.

b) number: tanto (so much)

- Yu (you) bu (not) gai (should) shwo (to say) tanto (so much) lautem (loudly). – You shouldn't talk so loudly.

- tanto kway (fast) kom (as) posible (possible) – as fast as possible

c) situation: hir (here), dar (there)

- Me (I) es (is /are /am) hir (here), yu (you) es (is / are / am) dar (there). – You are here, I'm there.

d) direction: ahir ((to) here), adar ((to) there)

- Lai (to come) ba ("imperative") ahir (here)! Nau (now) go (to go) ba ("imperative") adar (there)! – Come here! Now go there!

e) time, condition: dan (then)

- dan me (I) bu (not) mog-te (can + "past tense") – then (at that time) I could

- dan me (I) bu (not) go (to go) – then (under such condition) I'm not going


4.3. Compound

a) situation: koylok (somewhere), enilok (anywhere), kadalok (everywhere), otrelok (in the other place), nullok (nowhere)

- Lu (he) lekti (to read) mucho (much), luy (his) kitaba (book) es (is) kadalok (everywhere). – He reads a lot, his boooks are everywhere.

- Hir (here) yur (your) bao (bag) yok (there is no), shuki (to look for) ba ("imperative") otrelok (in the other place). – There is no your bag here, look for it some other place.

b) time: koytaim (sometime), enitaim (anytime), oltaim (all the time); koyves (sometimes), kadaves (every time), unves (once), otreves (another time), nulves (not once, never)

- Koytaim (sometime) me (I) ve ("future tense") go (to go) a ("direction") Paris (Paris). – Sometime I will go t Paris.

- Lu (he) lekti (to read) oltaim (all the time). – He is reading all the time

c) manner: koykomo (somehow), enikomo (anyhow)

- Yu (you) mog (can) resolvi (to solve) sey (this) taska (task) enikomo (anyhow). – You can solve this task anyhow.

d) degree: koygrad (to some degree), nulgrad (not in the least)

- Me (I) sol (only) koygrad (to some degree) samaji (to understand) yu (you). – I understand you only to some degree.

e) other: olosam (anyway), otrekas (otherwise)


4.4. Other

a) frequence: sempre (always), oftem (often), rarem (rarely), pinchanem (usually), neva (never)

- Lu (he) sempre (always) tardi (to be late). – He is always late.

b) time: nau (now), poy (then, later), sun (soon), turan (suddenly), tuy (right now), yeri (yesterday), sedey (today), manya (tomorrow)

- Sedey (today) meteo (weather) es (is) hao (good). Me (I) bu (not) jan (to know) kwel (what) meteo (weather) ve ("future tense") bi (to be) manya (tomorrow). – Today the weather is good. I don't know what the weather will be like tomorrow.

c) yo (already), haishi (still, as yet), snova (again)

- Me (I) yo (already) jan (to know) om (about) to (that). – I know about that already.

- Lu (he) haishi (still) safari (to travel). — He still travels.

d) supposition: shayad (perhaps), mogbi (maybe), musbi (must be), semblem (seemingly), sertem (certainly), zaruu (without fail), ouran (casually), verem (actually)

- Shayad ta (he / she) bu (not) ve ("future tense") lai (to come). – Perhaps he / she will not come.

- Musbi ta (he / she) he ("past tense") fogeti (to forget). – He must have forgotten about it.

e) addition, confirmation: yoshi (also), toshi (too)

- Me (I) hev (to have) blan (white) kamila (camilla).Yoshi (also) me (I) hev (to have) rude (red) rosa (rose). – I have a white camilla. Also I have a red rose.

- Lu (he) toshi (also, too) hev (to have) rosa (rose). – He has a rose too.

f) non-exactness: hampi (almost), sirke (about, approximately), vaika (just, at least), kwasi (as if)

- Hampi (almost) oli (everybody) lai (to come). – Nearly everybody comes / came.

- Me (I) hev (to have) sirke (approximately) dwa (two) litra (litre) milka (milk). – I have about two litres milk.

- Dai (to give) ba ("imperative") vaika (at least, just) fo (for) un (one) minuta (minute)! – Give (it to me) at least for one minute!

- Ela (she) kwasi bu (not) merki (to notice) me (I). - She behaves as if she didn't notice me.

g) exceptiveness: sol (only), sim (simply), rek (just, straight), yus (just)

- Sol ela (she) mog (can) samaji (to understand) me (I). – Only she can understand me.

- Sim silensi (to keep silence) ba (imperative marker) idyen (a little). - Just keep silence for a while.

- Sey (this) kamina (road) dukti (to lead) straight a (to) urba (town). - This road leads straight to the town.

h) degree: gro (very much, greatly)

- Lu (he) lubi (to love) suy (his / her) molya (wife) gro (much). – He loves his wife very much.

i) continuation: for (further, on)

- Ta (he / she) gun (to work) for (further). – He is working on.

j) away: wek (away)

- Go (to go) wek (away)! – Go away!

k) loose: los

- Doga (dog) es (is) los (loose). – The dog is loose.

l) on / off: on, of

- Mah ("to make") radio (radio) on. – Make the radio on.

m) emphasis: iven (even), primem (firstly)

- Iven kinda (child) mog (can) samaji (to understand) se (this)). – Even a child can understand that.

n) in vain: vanem

- Li (they) shuki (to look for) ol (whole) dey (day), bat (but) vanem. – The have been looking for it during the whole day, but in vain.

5. Verb

Examples: vidi (to see), jan (to know), shwo (to talk). 5.1. Verb form doesn't change. Grammar meaning are expressed with special particles. Exception: bi (to be) – es (is / are / am) – bin (was / were).


5.2. Tenses

If there is any indication of time of action, the basic verb form can be used.

- Unves (once) me (I) miti (to meet) rega (king / queen). – Once I met a king / queen.

The tense can be specified with particles:

a) ve- ("future tense"), -te ("past tense")

- Me (I) lekti (to read) mucho (much). – I read a lot.

- Bat (but) me (I) bu (not) lekti-te (to read + "past tense") sey (this) kitaba (book). – I didn't read this book.

- Me (I) ve ("future tense") lekti (to read) it (it). – I will read it.

b) zai (continuous marker)

- Me (I) bu (not) mog (can) lai (to come) nau (now), me (I) zai chi (to eat) deyfan (dinner). – I can't come now I'm having dinner.

- Kwo (what) me (I) zwo (to do) yeri (yesterday) klok ("o'clock") sit (six)? Me (I) zai promeni-te (to walk + "past tense") in (in) shulin (forest). – What was I doing yesterday at six o'clock? I was walking in the forest.

c) he (completed action)

- Me (I) he zwo (to do) olo (all, everything). – I have done everything.

d) yus he ("just")

- Way (why) yu (you) es (is / are) gande (dirty)? Me (I) yus he woshi (to wash) yu (you)! – Why are you dirty? I have just washed you!

e) gwo (indefinite past, "used to")

- Ob (a question particle) nu (we) gwo miti (to meet) koylok (somewhere)? – Have me ever met somewhere?

f) sal (near future, "be going to")

- Sup (soup) es (is / are) tayar (ready). Nu (we) sal chi (to eat) deyfan (dinner). – The soup is ready. We are going to have dinner.


5.3. Subjunctive ("would"): wud

- Me (I) wud yao (to want) bi (to be) rega (king / queen). – I would like to be a king / a queen.

5.4. Speaking about an other people's opinion: muka

- Lu (he) muka lubi (to love) ela (she). – He is said to love her.

5.5. Imperative:

a) ba

- Gani (to sing) ba, me (I) pri (to like) audi (to hear) wen (when) yu (you) gani (to sing). – Sing (to me), I like to hear you sing.

b) bye (don't)

- Bye lai (to come)! – Don't come!

c) hay (let, may), magari (I wish), nomagari (I wish not)

- Hay may (my) yaosa (wish) fulfil (fulfil)! — May my wish come true!

- Magari surya (sun) lai (to come)! – I wish the sun came!

- Nomagari pluvi (to rain)! – I wish it didn't rain!


5.6. Indication of transitiveness (if necessary):

a) fa- ("to become, get"): astoni (to astonish) – fa-astoni (to get astonished)

b) mah- ("to cause"): lwo (to fall) – mah-lwo (to drop)

5.7. Indication of the aspect (if necessary):

a) en- (to begin): Poy (then) ta (he / she) en-gani (to begin to sing). – Then he / she begins / began singing.

b) ek- ("one time or suddenly"): Ela (she) ek-krai (to cry one time) turan (suddenly). – She gave a cry suddenly.

c) verb doubling (action takes some time or is repeated many times): Lu (he) go-go (go) pa (preposition of a wide meaning) shamba (room). – He paced up and down the room.

d) the adverb oltaim (the action is continuous or is repeting all the time): Lu (he) shwo (to say, to talk) oltaim. – He is talking all the time.


5.8. Passive: gei ("is being done")

- Me (I) zai (continuous marker) lekti (to read) sey (this) kitaba (book), also (so) it (it) gei lekti (to read). – I'm reading this book, so it is being read.

5.9. Participle:

a) -she (active)

- Me (I) zai (continuous marker) lekti (to read), me (I) es (is / are) lekti-she (reading). – I'm reading.

b) -ney (passive or past)

-Me (I) he (past tense marker) lekti (to read) sey (this) kitaba (book), it (it) es (is / are) yo (already) lekti-ney (read). – I have read this book, it is already read.

- Lu (he) yus he ("just") lai (to come), lu (he) es (is / are) yo (already) lai-ney (come). – He has just come.

5.10. Participle: -yen ("while doing")

- Me (I) zai (continuous marker) slu (to listen) kan-yen (looking at) yu (you). – I'm listening while looking at you.


5.11. Simultaneity: al

- Al vidi (to see) me (I) lu (he) ahfi (to hide) swa (oneself). – As soon as he sees me, he hides himself.

5.12. Succession of actions: afte (after)

- Afte vidi (to see) un (one) ves (time) yu (you) neva (never) fogeti (to forget). – After you see it once, you will never forget it.


6. Special verbs

6.1. fai (can substitute any verb): fai kama (bed) – to lie or to sleep in the bed

6.2. mah ("to cause"): mah sikin (knife) agude (sharp) – to sharpen the knife (= mah-agude sikin)

6.3. hev (to have), ye (there is), yok (there is no), walaa (here is)

- Me (I) hev (to have) dwa (two) kalam (pencil). – I have two pencils.

- Kalam (pencil) ye (there is), bat (but) papir (paper) yok (there is no). – There is a pencil, but there is no paper.

- Walaa may (my) shamba (room). – Here is my room.


6.4. Modal verbs.

a) Possibility, abilty: mog

- Me (I) mog zwo (to do) se (this). – I can do it.

- Bu (not) mog jivi (to live) sin (without) akwa (water). – One can't live without water.

b) Know how: janmog

- Me (I) janmog gani (to sing) hao (good, well). – I can sing well.

c) Permission: darfi

- Hir (here) bu (not) darfi fumi (to smoke). – One can't (isn't allowed to) smoke here.

d) Need: nidi

- Me (I) nidi chi (to eat) koysa (something) – I need to eat something.

e) Be obliged, have to: majbur

- En-pluvi (to begin to rain), me (I) majbur go (to go) a dom (home). – it has started to rain; I have to go home.

f) It is necessary; require: treba

- Treba fini (finish) til (till) aksham (evening). – It is necessary to finish till the evening.

g) Should: gai

- Bu (not) gai lanfai (to be lazy). – One shouldn't be lazy.

h) Must: mus

- Me (I) mus go (to go) a ofis (to the office). – I must go to the office.

i) Wish: yao

- Me (I) yao shwo (to talk) kun (with) yu (you). – I want to talk to you.

j) To like: pri

- Me (I) pri raki (to ride) bisikla (bicycle). – I like to ride a bicycle.


6.5. “Intensive” verbs (before another verb)

a) to succeed in doing: pai (to get)

- Me (I) pai ofni (to open) boxa (box). – I have managed to open the box.

b) indication of a new condition: lwo in (to fall in)

- Ela (she) lwo in plaki (to cry). – She burst into tears.

c) unexpectedness: dai (to give)

- dai shwo (ta say, to talk) – to blurt out


6.6. "worth": val

- Val slu (to listen) pyu (more) atentem (attentively). – It's worth listening more attentively.

6.7. “state” verb: sta

- Komo (how) yu (you) sta? – How are you?

- Me (I) sta hao (good, well). – I'm well.


Compound words

1. When sequence of two words acquires a new meaning, at least a little, the words are written together and a compound word appears.

1.1. The last word is the main one in a sequence:

- gun (to work) + taim (time) = guntaim (action time)

- surya (sun) + flor (flower) = suryaflor (sunflower)

- maus (mouse) + kapter (catcher) = mauskapter (mouse trap)


1.2. Some words are regularly used to make compound words:

a) jen (person), man (man), gina (woman): jadu (sorcery) – jadujen (sorcerer/sorceress) – jadugina (sorceress) – jaduman (sorcerer)

b) yuan (employee): polis (police) – polisyuan (policeman)

c) guan (institution): kitaba (book) – kitabaguan (library)

d) lok(o) (place): habitilok (habitation)

e) menga (great amount): jenmenga (crowd)

f) fin (end): lekti (to read) – finlekti (to read completely)

g) swa (oneself): swa-luba (self-love), swa-kontrola (self-control)

h) for (ahead): for-gunsa (work continuation)

i) kontra (against): kontratoxin (antidote); kontrapon (to oppose)

j) sin (without): sinsensu-ney (meaningless)

k) tra (through): go (to go) – trago (to go through)


Interchange of one part of speech for another

1. Noun to adjective:

a) -ney (for nouns ending with -а the short form is acceptable: resta-ney = reste): interes (interest) – interes-ney (interesting)

b) -ful (full of): luma (light) – lumaful (full of light, luminous)

c) -lik (similar in appearance or character): gina (woman) – ginalik (feminine, womanly)


2. Adjective to noun:

2.1. Suffixes.

a) -a (only for adjectives ending in -e) (“something or somebody characterized with this quality”)

- adulte (grown-up) – adulta (a grown-up person), konstante (constant) – konstanta (a constant)

b) -(i)taa (makes abstract nouns): vere (true) – veritaa (truth), hao (good) – haotaa (goodness)

c) -nesa: gao (high) – gaonesa (highness) – gaotaa (height)

d) -nik (characteristic feature): hao (good) – haonik (good one)

e) -ka (a thing having the quality): mole (soft) – molika (pulp)

2.2. Particles:

a) lo: Lo zuy (most) muhim (important) es (is) luba (love). – The most important thing is love.

b) -la / -las: Walaa (here is) dwa (two) rosa (rose). Sey-la (this one) es (is) rude (red), toy-la (that one) es (is) blan (white). – Here are two roses. This one is red and that one is white.

c) wan (only about people): Syao (little) wan bu (not) lai (to come). – The little one isn't coming.


3. Adjective to adverb: -(e)m (the stressed vowel doesn't change) or the same form

a) for adjectives ending in -e: klare (clear) – klarem (clearly)

b) for adjectives ending in a consonant: santush (satisfied, contented) — santushem (contentedly)

c) for other adjectives the form doesn't change: hao (good, well), kway (quick, quickly)


4. Noun to adverb: -nem: amiga (friend) – amiga-nem (friendly)


5. Noun to verb:

a) -vati: pao (a bubble) – paovati (to bubble)

b) -isi: memoria (memory) – memorisi (to memorize)


6. Adjective to verb

a) fa- (= -ifi): hao (good) – fa-hao (to improve, grow better), leve (light) – levifi (to lighten, become lighter)

b) mah- (= -isi): gran (big) – mah-gran (to increase, make bigger), klin (clean) – klinisi (to clean, cleanse)

c) -fai: hwan (yellow) – hwanfai (appear/show yellow)


7. Verb to noun

7.1. Without special changes in meaning

a) -a (for the verbs ending with "consonant + i"), -sa (for other verbs) (the act, the result): lubi (to love) – luba (love), gun (to work) – gunsa (work)

b) -ing (the process) (the stressed vowel doesn't change): swimi (to swim) – swiming (swimming), gloti (to swallow) – glota (a swallow) – gloting (swallowing)

c) tu: Tu samaji (to understand) es (is / are) tu pardoni (to forgive). – To understand means to forgive.

7.2. Doer

a) -er (doer or tool): leki (to treat medically) – leker (doctor), ofni (to open) – ofner (opener)

b) -sha (a person performing the action): plei (to play) – plei-sha (the one who is playing)

c) -nik (a person having a characteristic feature): fobi (to be afraid of) – fobnik (coward)

7.3. Related to the action

a) -tura (the final result): shwo (to say, to talk) – shwotura (a saying)

b) -wat (the object of action): pi (to drink) – piwat (beverage)

c) -ka (an object related to the action): pendi (to hang) – pendika (peg, rack)


8. Verb to adjective

8.1. General meaning

a) -ke (related to): helpi (to help) – helpike (auxiliary), hao-chi-ke (good, well + to eat) fan (food) – tasty food

b) -she, -ney (participles): skribi (to write) – skribi-she (writing), skribi (to write) – skribi-ney (written)

8.2. With special meaning

a) -bile (possibility): vidi (to see) – vidibile (visible)

b) -shil (tending to): kusi (to bite) – kusishil (tending to bite)

c) -val (worth doing): admiri (to admire) – admirival (admirable)


9. Verb to adverb

a) -shem (the short form for the verbs ending with i: sembli-shem = semblem): ahfi (to hide) – ahfi-shem (secretly)

b) -nem: ofensi (to offend) – ofensi-nem (like being offended)


Particles and affixes that don't change the class of word

1. Common

(can be used with words of different classes)

1.1. Opposition: no-: pinchan (ordinary) – nopinchan (extraordinary)

1.2. Diminutive and magnifying:

a) -ki (diminutive, doesn't change the quality): doga (dog) – doga-ki (a little dog, doggy); somni (to sleep) – somni-ki (to take a nap)

b) gro- (magnifying, without change in meaning): okos (eyes) – gro-okos (big eyes), gao (high, tall) – gro-gao (very high), danke (thank you) – gro-danke (thank you very much), pluvi (to rain) – gro-pluvi (to rain heavily)

1.3. pre- (precedence): vidi (to see) – previdi (to foresee), nam (name) – prenam (first name), yeri (yesterday) – preyeri (the day before yesterday)

1.4. Negative attitude

a) dus- ("bad, ill"): fauha (smell) – dusfauha (stink), trati (to trat) – dustrati (to mistreat)

b) shma- (disdain): kaval (horse) – shma-kaval (jade), skribi (to write) – shma-skribi (to scribble)

1.5. Similarity: -si: kitaba-si (sort of a book)


2. Noun

2.1. Diminutive and magnifying:

a) -kin (diminutive, with some change of quality): barela (barrel) – barelakin (keg)

b) -gron (magnifying, with some change of meaning): denta (tooth) – dentagron (tusk)

2.2. Other:

a) -inka (particle): snega (snow) – sneginka (snowflake)

b) -tot (a whole, a total): rishta (a relative) – rishtatot (all relatives, a clan)

c) yun- (a young): kota (cat) – yunkota (kitten)

d) pra- (ancestor): opa (grandfather) – praopa (great-grandfather), lingwa (language) – pralingwa (parent language)

e) -ista (relating to a doctrine or a profession): denta (tooth) – dentista (dentist)

f) -nik (bearer of some characteristic feature): kitaba (book) – kitabnik (book lover)

g) -dan (a container): nayu (butter) – nayudan (butterdish)

h) fuy- (disgust): jen (person) – fuy-jen (nasty person)

i) stif- (step-): - mata (mother) – stif-mata (stepmother)

j) -inloo (indirect kinship) (colloq.): brata (brother) – brata-inloo (cousin)


3. Adjective

3.1. bu- (negation, but not opposition): gran (big) – bugran (not big)

3.2. -ish ("to some degree"): blan (white) – blanish (whitish), hao (good) – haoish (passable)


4. Verb

4.1. Prefixes of aspect

a) en- (beginning): lubi (to love) – en-lubi (to fall in love)

b) ek- (one time or suddenly): krai (to cry) – ek-krai (to give a cry)

4.2. Opposite action: de(s)-: sharji (to charge) – desharji (to unload, to discharge)

4.3. Other prefixes

a) ras- (separation, division, or dispersion): dai (to give) – rasdai (to distribute, give to several people)

b) ri- (again): zwo (to do) – rizwo (to do anew)

c) ko- (together): senti (to feel) – ko-senti (sympathize (with), feel (for))

d) be- (changes the object): dumi (to think) – bedumi koysa (ponder over something), chori (to steal) – bechori koywan (to rob somebody)

Prepositions

1. The place of a preposition

1.1. After a preposition there may be:

a) a noun (or a noun group): fo (for) molya (wife) – for wife

b) a verb: fo (for) miti (to meet) – in order to meet

c) ke + phrase: fo (for) ke ("that") yu (you) samaji (to understand) – in order that you understand

1.2. If necessary, the preposition may be put after the word. In this case there has to be the particle den: den kinda (child) om (about) – about the child


2. Simple prepositions

2.1. belonging: de: kitaba (book) de boy (boy) – the book of the boy

2.2. direction: a: dai (to give) a me (I) – give me

2.3. purpose: fo: dona (gift) fo yu (you) – a gift for you

2.4. cause: por: bu (not) lai (to come) por morba (desease) – not come because of a disease

2.5. topic, object: om: dumi (to think) om molya (wife) – to think about the wife

2.6. with, without: kun, sin: promeni (to walk) kun kinda (child) – to walk with the child, chay (tea) sin sukra (sugar) – tea without sugar

2.7. doer, tool: bay: chi (to eat) bay chiza (spoon) – to eat with a spoon, gana (song) (skriben (written)) bay Vysotskia song by Vesotski

2.8. object of action: an: kansa (glance) an dom (house) – a glance at the house

2.9. accordance: segun: plei (to play) segun regula (rule) – to play according to the rules

2.10. means: via: en-jan (to learn) habar (news) via visin (neighbor) – to learn the news from the neighbor

2.11. change, exchange: pur: kupi (to buy) pur mani (money) – to buy with money, zwo (to do) pur amiga (friend) – to do instead of a friend

2.12. simultaneity, circumstances: al: lagi (to lie) al lekti (to read) – to lie reading, al se (this) ta (he / she) en-stan *to stand up) - at this he / she stand up

2.13. material: aus: kastela (castle) aus ramla (sand) – a castle (made) out of the sand

2.14. characteristic feature: do: okula (glasses) do surya (sun) – sunglasses

2.15. relation: relatem: me (I) es (is / are/ am) neutrale (neutral) relatem sey (this) kwesta (question) – I'm neutral concerning this question

2.16. support: pro: li (they) shwo (say, talk) pro guverna (government) – they talk pro government

2.17. opposition: kontra: kontra may (my) vola (will) – against my will


3. Prepositions of correlations

3.1. replacement: inplas: onpon (to put on) jupa (skirt) inplas panta (trousers) – to put on the skirt instead of trousers

3.2. exception: exepte: oli (all, everybody) exepte me (I) – everybody except me

3.3. besides: krome: lu (he) hev (to have) mucho (many) amiga (friend) krome me (I) – he has a lot of friend besides me

3.4. concession: malgree: nu (we) promeni (to walk) malgree pluva (rain) – we walk in spite of the rain


4. Prepositions of situation

(the mark komo means that the preposition may be used independently, as an adverb)

4.1. in limits:

a) in (in): promeni (to walk) in shulin (forest) – to walk in a forest

b) inen (inside (komo)): ye (there is) koysa (something) inen boxa (box) – there is something inside the box

4.2. outside: ausen (komo): may (my) oma (grandmother) jivi (lives) ausen urba (city) – my grandmother lives outside the city

4.3. near: bli (komo): skola (school) es (is) bli dom (house) – the school is near the house

4.4. at the other side of: traen (komo): Es (is) tume (dark) traen winda (window). – It's dark outside (the window).

4.5. in relation to other things:

a) inter (between): nu (we) es (is / are) inter skay (sky) e (and) arda (earth) – we are between the sky and the earth

b) miden (among): miden amigas (friends) – among the friends

4.6. linear sequence: bifoo (before), afte (after)

- In (in) sey (this) fila (line, queue) yu (you) es (is / are) bifoo me (I) e (and) afte ela (she). – In this line you are before me and after her.

4.7. sequence in space: avanen (in front of (komo)), baken (behind (komo)): avanen kolonain front of the column, baken dwarbehind the door

4.8. vertically:

a) on (on): Kitaba (book) es (is / are) on tabla (table). – The book is on the table.

b) sobre (above), sub (under): Papagay (parrot) flai (to fly) sobre tabla (table), kota (cat) sidi (to sit) sub lemar (wardrobe). – The parrot flies over the table, the cat sits under the wardrobe.

c) uuparen (up, at the upper part of (komo)), nichen (at the lower part of (komo)): nichen kolina (hill) — at the bottom of the hill, fon (from) uuparenfrom above

4.9. horizontally:

a) flanken (at the side of (komo)): Flanken dom (house) ye (there is) garden (garden). – At the side of the house there is a garden.

b) leften (at the left (komo)), desnen (on the right (komo)): In (in) korpa (body) kordia (heart) es (is / are) leften. – In the body the heart is at the left.

4.10. around: sirkum (komo): sirkum dom (house) – around the house

4.11. opposition: kontra (komo): Teatra (theater) es (is / are) kontra sirkus (circus). – The theater is in front of the circus.

4.12. a typical place or feature: she: Me (I) es (is / are) she me (I). – I am at mine.


5. Prepositions of movement

(the mark komo means that the preposition may be used independently, as an adverb)

5.1. direction to:

a) a: Me (I) zai ("continuous marker") go (to go) a dom (to the house). – I'm going (walking) to the house (home).

b) versu: Treba (it is necessary) turni (to turn) versu dom (home). – One should turn towards home.

5.2. direction from: fon: May (my) mata (mother) zai ("continuous marker") go (to go) fon dom (house) fo (for) miti (to meet) me (I). – My mother is walking from the house in order to meet me.

5.3. into: inu (komo): Bye (don't) stan (stand), go (go) inu dom (house). – Dont stand, go into the house.

5.4. out of: aus (komo): Me (I) bu (not) mog (can) findi (to find) dao (way) aus shulin (forest). – I can't find the way out of the forest.

5.5. through: tra: Me (I) mog (can) vidi (to see) yu (you) tra winda (window). – I can see you through the window.

5.6. along: along: go (to go) along riva (river) – to go along the river

5.7. vertically: uupar (up (komo)), nich (down (komo)): go (to go) uupar kolina (hill) – to go up the hill

5.8. horizontally: avan (forward, ahead (komo)), bak (back (komo)): go (to go) bak kamina (road) – to go back along the road

5.9. impact: kontra (against): Me (I) apogi (lean) kontra mur (wall). – I lean against the wall.

5.10. past, by: pas: Oni (one, they) go (go) pas e (and) bu (not) merki (to notice) nixa (nothing). – They are going past and don't notice anything.


6. Prepositions of time

6.1. period: fo: me (I) pren (to take) it (it) fo tri (three) dey (day) – I take it for three days

6.2. duration: duran: duran gwer (war) – during the war

6.3. beginning: depos: Me (I) es (is / are / am) hir (here) depos klok (o'clock) sit (six). – I've been here since six o'clock.

6.4. limits: fon, til: Me (I) majbur (to have to) bi (to be) hir (here) fon sabah (morning) til aksham (evening). – I have to be here from morning till evening.

6.5. in, after: afte:

- Me (I) ve ("future tense") bi (to be) hir (here) afte (after) klok (o'clock) sit (six). - I'll be here after six o'clock.

- Me (I) lai (to come) afte dwa (two) minuta (minute). - I'll be back in two minutes.

6.6. by: bifoo

- Treba (to have to) zwo (to do) se (this) bifoo klok (o'clock) sem (seven). - You have to do (to have been done) that before seven o'clock.

- Bifoo chifan (to have meal) gai (should) woshi (to wash) handas (hands) e (and) afte chifan (to have meal) gai (should) shwo (say) "danke" (thank you). – Before meal one should wash the hands, and after the meal one should say "thank you".


7. Prepositions of number

7.1. approximate: sirke: sirke dwa (two) metra (meter) – about two meters

7.2. distribution per unit: per: dwa (two) dolar (dollars) per jen (man) – two dollars per head

7.3. distribution into portions: po: Olo (all, everything) es (is / are) po dwa (two) dolar (dollar). – Everything costs two dollars each piece.


8. Preposition of general meaning: pa

- pa fortuna (luck) – fortunately

- pa mur (wall) – at the wall

- shwo (to say, to talk) pa ruski (Russian) – to speak Russian


Conjunctions

1. Conjunctions unite: either words of the same class or whole clauses.

1.1. simple:

a) combination: e (and)

- me (I) e yu (you) – me and you

- Me (I) janmog (to know how) rasmi (to draw) e gani (to sing). – I can draw and sing.

b) contrasting: bat (but)

- Me (I) janmog (to know how) rasmi (to draw), bat me (I) bu (not) janmog (to know how) gani (to sing). – I can draw, but I can't sing.

c) alternative: o (oda) (or)

- Pren (to take) sey (this) kitaba (book) o toy-la (that one). – Take this book or that one.


1.2. doubled:

a) both...and: i .. i: Me (I) lubi (to love) i yu (you) i ela (she). – I love both you and her.

b) neither... nor: ni .. ni: Me (I) bu (not) yao (to want) vidi (to see) li (they), ni lu (he) ni ela (she). – I don't want to see them, neither him nor her.

c) either... or: oda .. oda: Nu (we) sal (to be going to) hev (to have) oda son (son) oda docha (daughter). – We are going to have either a son or a daughter.

d) nau .. nau: Ta (he / she) shwo (to say, to talk) nau lautem (loudly), nau kyetem (quietly). - He / She is talking now loudly, now quietly.


1.3. phrasal:

a) condition: si: Me (I) lai (to come) si yu (you) yao (to want). – I will come if you want.

b) concession: obwol: Ta (he / she) bu (not) lai (to come) obwol me (I) he ("past tense") pregi (to ask for). – He/she didn't come, though I had asked (her to come).

c) purpose: dabe: Me (I) shwo (to say, to talk) dabe yu (you) samaji (to understand) me (I). – I speak so that you understand me.

d) cause: bikos (because), sikom (as, for)

- Me (I) lai (to come) bikos yu (you) pregi (to ask for). – I come because you asks (for it).

- Sikom yu (you) bu (not) pregi (to ask for), me (I) bu (not) ve ("future tense") lai (to come). – As you don't ask (for it), I won't come.

e) sudden circumstance: ewalaa

- Me (I) zai ("continuous marker") somni (to sleep) ewalaa baji (to ring) gro (much). – I'm sleeping, and suddenly it rings a lot.

f) opposition: yedoh

- Me (I) koni (to know, to be acquainted) yu (you) yedoh me (I) bu (not) koni (to know, to be acquainted) yur (your) sista (sister). – I know you, however I don't know your sister.


Numerals

1. Words denoting a number (with all such words the basic form of noun is used)

1.1. basic numerals

a) units

nol (0)

un (1), dwa (2), tri (3), char (4), pet (5), sit (6), sem (7), ot (8), nin (9), shi (10)

a) tens

dwashi (20), trishi (30), charshi (40) ... ninshi (90) (written as one word)

b) hundreds

sto (100), dwasto (200), tristo (300) ... ninsto (900) (written as one word)

c) thousand: mil (1000) (written in several words)

d) million: milion (1.000.000) (written in several words)

e) numbers

shi-un (11), shi-dwa (12), shi-tri (13) ... shi-nin (19)

dwashi-un (21), petshi-sem (57)

22 957 = dwashi-dwa mil ninsto-petshi-sem


1.2. Fractions: -fen

- un dwafen – 1/2

- sem shifen – 7/10; 0,7

- tri koma pet – 3,5


Deriven worda

1.3. Adjectives:

a) -ney: un-ney (the first), dwa-ney (the second), tri-ney (the third) ...

b) -ple: unple (single), dwaple (double) ...


1.4. Adverbs:

a) -nem: un-nem (firstly), dwa-nem (secondly) ...

b) -plem: dwaplem (twice), triplem (three times as much) ...


1.5. Nouns:

a) -ka: unka (one), dwaka (two) ...

b) haf (half), para (pair)


1.6. Pronouns

a) mucho (many, much)

b) pluri (several)

c) kelke (some)

d) idyen (a little, a few)

e) shao (little, few)

- Me (I) vidi (to see) mucho (many, much) flor (flower). – I see a lot of flowers.

- Ta (he/she) hev (to have) shao (little, few) kalam (pencil). – He/she has few pencils.

f) zuy mucho = maiste, zuy shao = minim

- Lu (he) hev (to have) minim bonbon (sweet). – He has the smallest amount of sweets.

g) kwanto (how many. how much)

h) tanto (so, to such extent)


2. Date

2.1. days of the week: numeral + di

a) undi (Monday)

b) dwadi (Tuesday)

c) tridi (Wednesday)

d) chardi (Thursday)

e) petdi (Friday)

f) sitdi (Saturday)

g) semdi (Sunday)


2.2. months

a) januar = mes-un (January)

b) februar = mes-dwa (February)

c) marto = mes-tri (March)

d) april = mes-char (April)

e) mey = mes-pet (May)

f) yuni = mes-sit (June)

g) yuli = mes-sem (July)

h) augusto = mes-ot (August)

i) septemba = mes-nin (September)

j) oktoba = mes-shi (October)

k) novemba = mes-shi-un (November)

l) desemba = mes-shi-dwa (December)

- dey trishi-un de mes-shi-dwathe 31th of December

- dey 21 mes 9 yar 1945 – 21.9.1945


3. O'clock: klok

-klok dwatwo o'clock

- klok sem sin petfive before seven o'clock

- klok sit e hafhalf past six

Exclamations

1. Greetings

1.1. Swasti! – (universal greeting) Be happy! Let the peace be on the Earth!

1.2. Compound greetings

a) Hao sabah! – Good morning!

b) Hao dey! – Good afternoon!

c) Hao aksham! – Good evening!

d) Hao nocha! – Good night!


1.3. Simple greetings

a) Salam! Heloo! Ola! – Hello!

b) Namastee! Nihao! – Hello! How do you do!


1.4. Bye

a) Chao! – Bye!

b) Adyoo! – Good bye!


2. Politeness words

2.1. Thankfulness

a) Danke! Shukran! – Thank you!

b) Danke gro! – Thank you very much!

c) Bi hao! – You are welcome!


2.2 Excuse

Skusi! – Excuse me!


2.3. Request

a) Plis – please (when asking)

b) Bi karim – be kind

2.4. Swaagat! – Welcome!


3. Interjections

a) Afsos! – Alas!

b) Kamon! – Come on!

c) wel – well